Again over that talk: Sexuality - Abhinaya Thapa

Living alongside with two of the biggest manufacturing giants of the world has made our clothes and others daily needs cheap and easy. Though the effect of commoditized environment on our daily lives is still beyond our gauge but perceptible signs are visible and could be easily discerned. The available choices on the market have given rise to the power and authority of commoners on matters like what to wear and what not. And the certain modicum of power over clothes means control over own body and also over the subject and the notion. Indeed what is body; if not clothes and clothes and little skin and insinuating bones?  And add to it poverty our caste system (regulated society) to provide the needed materials and goods of society, forget the comfort and other things.
The sudden changes in the attire and sexual behavior of youths especially in capital and other cities have startled old eyes and minds. They do not believe what they are seeing and some have started becoming delusional. Or maybe these guys were doing too much daydreaming or watching too much porn because these are solely their matters and discursive subjectivities over present sexuality especially of capital city. Oral sex, threesome and  an another guy a few weeks ago was writing in national daily about contemporary sexual practice and beliefs of city’s wannabe bride; a ritual check up of males’ sexual performance and only then yes or no on marriage. If Freud was alive today what he would have wrote on these daydreamers, better curve and carve it to artistic creations sons, masterpieces will be born.
 Amidst this crap now comes the question how are we to appropriate and discuss the present liberal developments and attitude towards sexuality and body plus its image? Many are of doubtful mind and still think it’s nothing but mere façade and on the other side reality is different. Males are still patriarchal and most of our females are still in their triple burden of work from home to work to community. Very true but why not to add in these lists what Professor Chaitnaya Mishra has attributed to the rise of republicanism and secularism; the breakdown of families, massive internal and external migration and play of these global forces or the capitalism according to his belief which are now being centered our two neighboring countries India and China.  And what about rise of middle class families in the urban sphere and their commodity relationship?
The question is why we are not attempting a holistic view and looking at the bright side? The males’ liberal attitudes to female sex and sexuality could turn him less patriarchal and how much it could make him malleable to new ideas like joint child rearing, housework and his efficient participation against rites and rituals like purity and pollution practice at times of women menstruation. The paucity of discourses over sexuality has indeed revealed our dearth of views and state instead; still in the mindset of procreation and overly focused on the relationship between vagina and penis.

 Not a single talk over the subject of marriage though most of individuals of our society will be married at some stage of life? And without the discussing marriage how can somebody even dare to talk of sexual practices whether it’s threesome, oral, bisexual or anything? After 1999 sex survey of capital by Himal magazine over subjectivities like marriage, sex (sexual practices) and love a trend has been established to loosely talk over these matters. A doctor and a psychologist that too sometimes even without a name would be enough to provide sanction over these things. Sadly this scenario is out there borrowing the words of academician Pratyoush Onta due to the very little output of scholars and academicians over these subjects. Due to their over indulgence only in subjects like fertility rate and death rate and other United nations and UNICEF types of things.

The subject of body, its image and behavior and sexuality would be ‘the discussion’ of our everyday lives simply because we are sexual beings and also the rising middle class in the cities are quite comfortable with other necessities but not with the various topics of sexuality. Not to be forgotten along with rising middle class there’s a bulk of male population with money and power. No doubt all these fantasies and daydreams are most of their activities and outcome of their influence. Besides worlds and our own history of sexuality have informed us till it’s mainly about domination and deprivation. These two notions come into play while describing, affirming and in elaboration thus who talks matters. A family man, an old man, a teenager, a housewife, a heterosexual, a politician and a poor deprived journalist plus a box office hit and those weeklies.

Lastly the subjectivities like body, sex, sexuality and image has to be defined with post 1950 developments and events. Plus we have to be aware that we live inside a multi nationality state and their identities and culture treat sexuality in different way than the views of Manu and other Sanskrit scriptures. The ideas like democracy, equality, communism, feminism and our history with those ideas has rarely been related and tested with subject of body and sexuality and  was always hidden and was kept out of reach.  That seems quite necessary at present to move beyond body image fetish inundating our all forms of media. 

वर्षा र सङ्गीत

                                                                                                                प्रभाकर गौतम

आज फेरि त्यही झरीको रात छ, पारी डाँडा भिज्यो हेर न !

ढिलै भएपनि शुरु भएको वर्षात्का यी रातहरुमा म यो गीत गुनगुनाइरहेको छु । यो अर्कै कुरा हो, वर्षा अलि पर धकेलिएकोले यसपटक झमझम पानी पर्यो असारको रात भनी गाउन पाइएन । तर केही छैन, साउनको झरी बनी तिमी आउन भनी गाउनलाई पर्याप्त समय बाँकी छ ।

सङ्गीतको प्रकृतिसँग निकै गहिरो सम्बन्ध छ । प्रकृति सङ्गीतको श्रोत पनि हो । त्यसैले त छन् मौसमअनुसारका यति मीठा मीठा गीतहरु । शास्त्रीय सङ्गीतमा बेला÷समय अनुसारको राग हुन्छ । खोज्दै जाने हो भने, हरेक मौसमका गीतहरु हामी सुन्न पाउँछौँ । वर्षात्को समयमा मौसम अनुसारकै गीतहरुको सान्दर्भिकता हुने नै भयो । विश्वभरको सङ्गीतमा वर्षा वा झरी सङ्गीतको विषय बन्दै आएको छ । नेपाली सङ्गीतमा पनि आधुनिक÷सुगम सङ्गीत, लोक, पप आदि सबै विधामा वर्षा यामको सन्दर्भ जोडिएका गीतहरुको कमी छैन । यद्यपि, मौसमको सन्दर्भ जोडेर रचिएका यस्ता गीतहरु मौसमीय कुरामा मात्र सीमित छैनन् । जसरी पानीको वर्षाइमा विविधता छ, यससम्बन्धी गीतमा पनि उत्तिकै विविधता पाइन्छ । यस्ता गीतहरुले हाम्रो जनजीवन, माया प्रेम, सुख दुख, रोमान्स र विरह सबै भावलाई समेटेका छन् ।

बहुचर्चित लोकगीत सिमसिमे पानीमा ज्यानले बेइमान गर्छ कि जिन्दगानीमा होस् चाहे पानी पर्यो असिना झर्यो हाम्रो जनजिब्रोमा झुण्डिएका गीत हुन् । असारै महिनामा पानी पर्यो रुझाउने देखि ए झरी नझरी देऊ यसरी बोलका गीतहरु पनि उसैगरी लोकप्रिय छन् । मिर्मिरे साँझमा सिमसिमे पानी, पानीको रिमझिम वर्षात्को बेला जस्तो गीत होस् वा साउने झरीमा त्यो गाउँको गोरेटो जस्तो पानी, वर्षा वा झरीको प्रसङ्गले गीतलाई सुन्दर बनाएकै छ । वर्षा अर्थात् पानी बिम्ब बनेर आउँदा पानी पानी भयो मेरो मन पनि बोलको गीत झनै श्रृङ्गारिक बनेको छ । धेरै गीतहरुमा असार÷साउनको पानी पर्ने मौसम आफ्नो मायालुको सम्झनाको प्रतीकका रुपमा पनि आएको छ । जस्तै, झझल्को लिएर आएछ सावन फेरि आँखामा । फेरि, झरी विरह बनेर पनि आएको छ झरी परेको दिन आकाश हेरिरहेँ, तिमी आउने दिन भनी कति पर्खिएँ र झरी परिरह्यो मनमा थामिएन आँशु जस्ता गीतहरुमा मा । यस्ता गीतहरुको सूची निकै लामो हुन सक्छ ।

यो वर्षा यामले, यो झरीले श्रष्टाहरुलाई अझ सृजनशील बनाओस् । झरीको तीव्रता र मन्दताले सर्जकहरुको मूडलाई पनि नौलो नौलो प्रयोग गर्न प्रेरित गरोस् । मेरो लागि, जिन्दगीको भागदौड र धपेडीबाट एकछिन सुस्ताउने गतिलो बिसौनी हो सङ्गीत । म त भन्छु, सबै श्रोताहरुको थकानमा उर्जा थप्ने सुन्दर सृजनाको श्रोत बनोस् यो वर्षा याम पनि ।

कविता मोह –रोशन खड्का

कविता पढ्छु म । किनकी यसप्रति मेरो अत्यन्तै मोह छ । यो मोहलाई लेखुँ–लेखँु लाग्यो । मैले कहिले देखि कविता पढ्न थालेँ ठ्याक्कै भन्न सक्दिन । यो असमर्थता भित्र केही सम्झनाहरु छन् । जसलाई यसरी लेखिरहेछु । त्यतिखेर ओखलढुङ्गाको अति बिकट स्कुल च्युरीडाँडा प्राविमा पढ्थे । मलाई पढाउने इन्दिरा मिसलाई आजपर्यन्त सम्झिरहन्छु । यसको कारण छ । भर्खरै दुई कक्षा चढेथँे । इन्दिरा मिस गाउनुहुन्थ्यो । उहाँको मधुर आवाजले मन्त्रमुग्ध बनाउथ्यो मलाई । सुनिरहन्थेँ । त्यो गीत माधवप््रसाद घिमिरेको “घामछाँया” कविता थियो । कविताभन्दा पनि मलाई इन्दिरा मिसको गीत मनपथ्र्यो । उहाँले सिकाउनुभएको लयमा आफ्ना सहपाठीसँगै ठूलो ठूलो स्वरमा गाउथेँ म, “कति राम्रो घाम कति राम्रो छाँया...।” त्यतिखेर मैले बुझेथेँ, कविता भनेको त गाउने कुरा रहेछ ।

 जसै कक्षा चढ्दै गएँ, ईन्दिरा मिसको आवाज पनि छुट्दै गयो । मैले गाँउने घामपानी गीत पनि ओझेल पर्दै गयो । यो ओझेलले मैले बुझेको कवितालाई छोपिदियो । झनहरी सर कविता घोकाउनुहुन्थ्यो । भुलेका प्रत्येक अक्षरको बदला एक लौरो खानुपर्ने भयले कविता खुब घोक्थेँ म । स्कुलमा घोकेका धेरै कविता आज पनि मुखाजप छ । यसरी दश कक्षासम्म पुग्दा म भित्र कविता सम्बन्धी अर्कै बिचार उब्जिएको थियो । म सोच्थेँ, कविता त घोक्ने कुरा रहेछ । दश पास गरेँ । अङ्ग्रेजी र गणितको आतंकले त्रसित म लुरुलुरु नेपालीको शरण परेँ । बाह्रमा बीसवटा कविता पढनु पथ्र्यो । पढ्थे । यतिखेरसम्म कविताले म भित्र स्पष्ट अनुभुत गर्न नसक्ने भावको तरङ्ग सञ्चार गर्न थालेको थियो, स्पष्ट हुन मन लाग्थ्यो । पाठ्यपुस्तकमा दिइएको समीक्षा पढ्थेँ । समीक्षा मेरो स्पष्ट भावमा घन भएर बजारिन्थ्यो । मैले अलिअलि बुझेको कविता र समीक्षाको व्याख्या कतै मेल खान्थेन । त्यतिखेर म सोच्थँे, कविता भनेको पुस्तक लेख्ने मान्छेले मात्र बुझ्ने कुरा रहेछ । आफूभित्र कविता बुझ्ने चाहना हुर्किएको थाहा पाउँदा एक पटक आग्रह गरेथेँ, “सर भिखारी कविता बुझ्नेगरी बताईदिनुस् न ।” गुरु अझै अप्ठ्यारो लाग्ने गरी समीक्षामै लेखिएका कुरा दोहो¥याउनुहन्थ्यो । म बुझ्दिनथेँ । त्यसपछि महशुस भएथ्यो, म बोधो छु, बोधो मान्छेले कविता कहिल्यै बुझ्दैन । म भित्र फेरी कविता सम्बन्धी अर्कै धारणा विकास भयो । कविता भनेको नबुझिने कुरा पो रहेछ ।

यसैगरी समय बित्दै गयो । बितेका समयसँग म भित्र कविताप्रतिको मोह चैँ बढिरह्यो । एकोहोरो पढिरहँे । यसबीच मैले अनुभूत गरेको कविता गाउने कुरा, घोक्ने कुरा र नबुझ्ने कुरा बिस्तारै बिलाउँदो थियो । पढिरहँदा कविताले अनौठो आनन्द दिन थाल्यो, नौलो संसार देखाउन थाल्यो । यो खुसीमा मैले भानुभक्तलाई पढेँ । लेखनाथ र देवकोटालाई पढेँ । रिमाल, भूपी र मोहन कोईरालालाई पढेँ । अनि बैरागी काँईला र अरु अरु थुप्रै कविलाई पढेँ । यीमध्ये कतिलाई बुझेँ कतिलाई बुझिनँ , अझै बुझ्दिनँ । अलि अलि बुझेर अनि अलि अलि नबुझेरै पनि मैले रिमाल र भूपीलाई असाध्यै मन पराएँ । यी दुई प्रिय कविका कविताले नै मलाई कविता पढिरहन प्रेरित गरे । त्यसपछि मलाई थाहा भयो, कविता नबुझ्ने मात्रै हुँदारहेनछन् । सजिलो भाषामा पनि बुझिने कविता लेखिँदा रहेछन् । त्यसैबेला देखि कविताले तानिरहेछ मलाई आपूmतिर निरन्तर निरन्तर... साहित्यमा कथा र उपन्यास, संस्मरण र निबन्धात्मक कृतिमा पनि उत्तिकै रुचि छ । तैपनि कहिले अति नै कहिले केही कम मात्रामा म कविता नै पढ्छु । कतै हिड्नु परे झोलामा कवितै बोक्छु । गाडीमा यात्रा गरिरहँदा बदलिइरने दृश्य र कविता मलाई उत्तिकै रोमाञ्चक र प्रिय लाग्छ । एउटै संग्रहका कवितामा हुने संवेदनाका फरक फरक अनुभुतिलाई म शब्दले व्यक्तै गर्न सक्दिनँ ।

भनिहालेँ नि म कवितै पढ्छु धेर । फेसबुक चलाउन थालेपछि यो क्रम अझ बढेको छ । बढ्दो छ । फेसबुकमा जोडिनु भएका साहित्यिक मनहरुसँगको सम्वादले मेरो पाठकीय चेतलाई परिपक्व र फराकिलो बनाउन निकै मद्दत गरेको छ । फेसबुकबाटै घनिष्ट भएका दोलखातिरका मित्र सौरभ कार्कीसँग साहित्यबारे हुने लामा फोन संवाद मेरा अविस्मरणीय क्षण हुन् । अप्रकाशित सर्जकहरुलाई प्रकाशित हुने प्रिय संसार हो फेसबुक । यसमा दिनहुँ प्रकाशित हुने सिर्जनाहरुबाट अरुले जस्तै मैले पनि प्रशस्त लाभ प्राप्त गरेको छु । बिशेष गरी कविता पढिरहने मेरो चाहनाको निम्ति फेसबुक अमूल्य प्राप्ति भएको छ । अहिले पढ्नकै लागि काठमाडौँ आएको छु । यता आउने बेला आमाले गाली गर्नुभएथ्यो, “अरु पढेर जागिर खान्छन् तँचाहिँ जागिर छोडेर पढ् अब, खुब ठूलो काम गर्ने भइस् ।” पढ्नुको अर्थ जागिर भनी बुझ्नुभएकी मेरी आमाको गाली मुसुक्क हाँसेर सुने मात्र । 

अतः आजकाल म पढ्न भनेरै काठमाडौँमा छु । यहाँ पनि कवितै पढिरहेछु । केही साथीसँग मागी, केही आफैले किनेर निकै कविता पढेँ । पढेका मध्ये बुद्विसागरका कविता, ल्याम्पपोष्टबाट खसेको जून, हतारमा यात्रा, गार्मेन्टकी गायत्री र प्रशन्न घिमिरेको र...निशब्द मलाई असाध्यै मन परे । पछिल्लो समयका यी प्रभावशाली कविताले मलाई बुझाएका छन्, कतिपय कवि सरल लेख्ने ध्याउन्नमा कलालाई भुल्दा रहेछन् । कतिपय चैँ कलात्मक बनाउने मोहमा सरल र बोधगम्य कविता लेख्न चुक्दा रहेछन् । उल्लेखित कविका कविताहरूमा यी दुवै कुराको अभाव पाएँ मैले । कला र विचारको सन्तुलनले यी कविता म बारम्बार दोहो¥याईरहन्छु । कविता पढेको निकै समय पछि मैले बुझेको छु, ईन्दिरा मिसले झैँ कवितालाई कसैले लय हालिदिनु नपर्ने रहेछ । यसमा आफैँ एउटा मधुर लयको सिर्जना हुदोरहेछ । यो कसैले घोकाउने गुरुकुलीय वेदका मन्त्र पनि होईन रहेछ । सुन्दर कविताका पंक्तिहरु त मुटुलाई छोएर आफै हृदयमा बस्दारहेछन् । अझ कविता कुनै पण्डितको पुराण त हुदै होईन रहेछ, अरुले अथ्र्याइदिए पछि मात्र बुझ्ने । यो त सबैले आफ्ना लागि आफ्नै आफ्नै विवेकले बुझ्न सक्ने बृहत ज्ञान भण्डार पो रहेछ । यसरी म भित्र दिन प्रतिदिन कविताप्रतिको मोह निरन्तर आकासिँदो छ । अतः सूर्यमुखी फूल सूर्यप्रति आकर्षित भएझैँ म पनि कवितासँग आकर्षित छु । फलामका कणहरु चुम्बकसँग तानिएझैँ म पनि कवितासँग तानिदो छु । नदीको लागि समथर भूमिझैँ मेरो लागि पनि कविता निरन्तर हिडाइरहने जीवनको गति भएको छ । यसर्थ भनेको हुँ कविताप्रति मेरो निकै मोह छ ।

 सिमरा ७ बारा हालः कुलेश्वर, काठमाडौँ

How to read Television? - Abhinaya Thapa

In future any readings over the modernity and on the culture of Kathmandu will be incomplete without the analysis of its inhabitant’s TV and cinematic experience. In fact it overwhelms our cultural activities due to this any future research has to surmount a huge obstacle, the idyllic nature in relationship with TV. Add to it the setting of a room because at present its where the most people watch movies and other TV programs. And try to think of all those Bollywood and Hollywood movies and programs from star networks and bevy of other satellite channels.
What goes between an individual and TV especially inside a room where one sits to watch programs that too of foreign countries? The individual and TV is rarely a subject in sociological and  media studies of Nepal and  due to the arrival of satellite channels in early 1990s the subject has suddenly moved beyond our grasp at least for the present . The influence of satellite channels programs on the people minds and daily behavior can now only observed or insinuated mainly through the changes in their attitudes and beliefs.
 In early 1990s American anthropologist Mark Liechty was endeavoring something similar and his findings suggest that the rise of western media and commodity culture in Kathmandu will be definitive in modernity of middle class in future. A lot has changed between then and now. After 1993 we have more than 100 satellite channels in our sky. Plus the internet is slowly coming within the grasp of the middle class. And the DVD films have changed drastically the way we used to watch, enjoy and interpret movies. Now the cinematic experience has to be understood mainly as a personal experience without others existence and behavior intervening during the process of communication. Previously even after the arrival of satellite channels the TV and cinematic experience was still a family thing. Due to this TV programs were constantly under the parental ratings and censorships. But after the arrival of DVDs individuals of new millennia  were able  to exercise more freedom not only in terms of  cinematic experience but thanks to piracy the whole Hollywood, Bollywood besides Korean cinema and European cinema became available in the streets of Kathmandu in between rupees 30 and 150. The outcome was communication with these international societies and their lives, cultures and stories.
So in order to understand at least the communicative behavior of youths of capital city the subjects like TV, DVDs and satellite channels had to be introduced. To gauge the role they played in developing conceptual tools and behavior patterns for the interaction between individuals and later with family and society at large the present circumstances will force any reader and researcher to delve into this TV and DVD cinematic experience and will force them to watch. In the process traditional concepts like individual and society or group communication will now have to be reevaluated and along with it our knowledge and concepts over groups and community has to rewritten and old ones can be abandoned.
So how to analyze TV experience and its relationship with satellite channels, movies and everything? Or should we have to study them separately and only after draw conclusions regarding their relationships? TV is new phenomena in context of Nepal only after 1990 it began to assume central place inside homes of middle class. But in the last ten years suddenly it has become ubiquitous in the urban sphere and due to the easy availability and cable companies low charge fee people from below the middle classes too have been able to access to satellite channels. Now it has beyond the middle class sphere and villages are coming into the fray. So how are we to read it as something of phenomena that happens inside a modern state as its modernizing policy or the effect of western cultural and technological power or  as a joint strategy between a modern state and capitalism and empires?
Any analysis and readings over TV  watching and DVD cinematic experience will draw attention to subjects like Bollywood and Hollywood and without developing  some kind of common rationale over them the TV studies of country our like ours will be quite hollow. The studies developing in the other parts of world can strike some common chords but one has ponder a lot before doing content analysis or explicating the TV sphere of our Nepal as an off shoot off public sphere. And it would be quite stupid to judge the contents and programs of satellite channels as bourgeois agenda or hegemonic acts.
I think time has come at last to watch more and more TV and films to develop new ways of cognition theories for analysis of contemporary society.  The effect of TV on the readings and interpretation of texts will be nice starting point.

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